Below are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your directory of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, making use of the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials associated with the first and names that are middle given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.
For dates, spell out of the names of months into the text of the paper, but abbreviate them within the a number of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the style that is month-day-year be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were https://essaywritersite.com written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had absolutely no way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, then publication names should be in italics as they are below if you use a computer. Check always with your instructor regarding their preference of employing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, this is certainly, the initial type of an entry should always be flush left, therefore the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title that should nevertheless be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and it is followed by the quantity number which, because of the title, is also italicized.
If there is one or more author, use an ampersand (&) prior to the name regarding the author that is last. If there are more than six authors, list just the first one and use et al. for the remainder.
Position the date of publication in parentheses right after the true name associated with author. Place a period following the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of The United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes associated with the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the latest encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period following the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical will not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in the present schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to quake that is big. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, relate to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) soon after the document title. Break a URL that is lengthy would go to another line after a slash or before a period of time. Continually look at your references to online documents. There’s no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find a few of this information, cite what is present.
Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as for example that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization together with relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.